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School Bullies and Their Victims Both Face Greater Risk of Eating Disorders than Peers

School Bullies and Their Victims Both Face Greater Risk of Eating Disorders than Peers

Children who bully their peers are twice as likely to display signs of bulimia — like bingeing and purging — than their peers, according to new research from Duke University and the University of North Carolina.

The study, which relied on interviews of 1,420 students, found that both bullies and their victims were roughly twice as likely as their peers to be at risk for eating disorders.

Victims of bullying and peer abuse were twice as likely to show signs of anorexia and bulimia, while children involved on both sides (sometimes instigators and sometimes victims) were most at risk for anorexia (22.8 percent versus 5.6 percent of children not involved in bullying at all. This group of children also had the highest prevalence of binge eating (4.8 percent compared to one percent of students not involved in bullying).

What surprised researchers, however, were the findings on the bullies themselves, to whom researchers had previously attributed a certain measure of fortitude.

“For a long time, there's been this story about bullies that they're a little more hale and hearty,” said the paper’s lead author, William Copeland, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University School of Medicine. “Maybe they're good at manipulating social situations or getting out of trouble, but in this one area it seems that's not the case at all. Maybe teasing others may sensitize them to their own body image issues, or afterward, they have regret for their actions that results in these symptoms like binge eating followed by purging or excess exercise.”

School bullies, researchers found, had a prevalence of bulimia symptoms of 30.8 percent, compared to 17.6 percent of their uninvolved peers.

“Sadly, humans do tend to be most critical about features in other people that they dislike most in themselves,” said Cynthia Bulik, a co-author and a distinguished professor of eating disorders at the UNC School of Medicine. “The bullies ‘own body dissatisfaction could fuel their taunting of others. Our findings tell us to raise our vigilance for eating disorders in anyone involved in bullying exchanges — regardless of whether they are the aggressor, the victim, or both.”


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.


Bullies and their victims more likely to want plastic surgery

School bullies and their victims are more likely to want cosmetic surgery, according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Professor Dieter Wolke -- and colleagues in the Department of Psychology and Warwick Medical School -- have discovered that teenagers who are affected by bullying in any way have a greater desire than others to change their bodies by going under the knife.

Almost 2800 adolescents -- aged 11 to 16 -- in UK secondary schools were screened for their involvement in bullying, through self and peer assessment.

A sample group of around 800 adolescents -- including bullies, victims, those who both bully and are bullied, and those who are unaffected by bullying -- was analysed for emotional problems, levels of self-esteem and body-esteem, and the extent of their desire to have plastic surgery.

They were asked to complete established questionnaires -- such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

The results showed that adolescents involved in bullying in any role were more interested in cosmetic surgery, compared to those uninvolved in bullying. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in victims of bullying, but was also increased in bullying perpetrators.

11.5% of bullying victims have an extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies, and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied -- this is compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying.

Girls want to go under the knife more than boys. Of the sample group, 7.3% of girls had an extreme wish to have plastic surgery, compared with 2% of boys.

The researchers state that perpetrators of bullying want to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance and increase their social status. .

Victims of bullying, on the other hand, want to go under the knife because their psychological functioning is affected by being picked on -- giving them lower self-esteem, more emotional problems and a desire to change their appearance.

Between 2014 and 2015, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive procedures were performed in the United States. Almost 230,000 of those procedures were performed on 13-19 year olds.

Rates of cosmetic surgery are similarly increasing in the United Kingdom and across the world.

Young people could have less of a desire for plastic surgery if mental health issues arising from bullying are addressed, according to the authors.

The researchers suggest that cosmetic surgeons screen potential patients for a history of bullying, and any related psychological issues.

Professor Wolke and his co-authors comment:

"Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. For bullies, cosmetic surgery may simply be another tactic to increase social status [. ] to look good and achieve dominance.

"The desire for cosmetic surgery in bullied adolescents is immediate and long-lasting.

"Our results suggest that cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and history of bullying."

The research, 'Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning', is published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.